Even as one of the world’s smallest countries, Israel is in its second decade of progress toward tackling one of the world’s largest problems: water scarcity.
One of Israel’s efforts toward making its water usage more efficient and environmentally sustainable came to fruition in 2005 with the construction of the Ashkelon Desalination Plant on the Mediterranean coast. There are now four plants with a fifth scheduled to open later this year at Ashdod.
The most recent plant to open was at Sorek in 2013, when the desalination company IDE Technologies partnered with Merkerot, Israel’s national water company, to implement a much more advanced reverse osmosis process converting salty water from the Mediterranean Sea into potable water.
“Ten years before, the question was: Who can make desalination? Of course, in those days a lot of companies made desalination,” said Boris Liberman, chief technology officer and vice president of IDE.
Liberman explained that Israel does not have separate water systems for drinking water and irrigation, but Sorek treats water for both purposes.
“It’s one common system, but the standard of the water we are producing is the highest standard,” he said.
With the production capacity of 624,000 cubic meters of water per day (164.8 million gallons), Sorek is the largest seawater desalination plant in the world. Water first undergoes the pre-treatment stage, where all suspended solids are removed, and “we try also to remove a little bit of the dissolved organic material as much as we can,” Liberman added.
The unique thing about our technology is that this is very important. You can incorporate it into a new system, or you can also incorporate it in an existing system.” — Dr. Noam Perlmutter
The water then passes through long, tube-like structures called membranes, where dissolved salts are removed from the water in two stages: first from the seawater and then again from the brackish water (a mixture of seawater and freshwater). Due to its increased production, Sorek uses 16-inch membranes, which are twice the size of those in any other plant in Israel.
“The size of the membrane is related to the size of the desalination you’re doing,” Liberman said. But “when you actually start to design this plant, you understand that a huge membrane is not cost-effective.”
In the post-treatment stage, a bit of limestone is added to the water in the absence of fluoride for drinking water.
“People need calcium for their bones, so somehow we have to add calcium,” he said, which limestone provides.
Liberman said each pump can produce about 2,500 cubic meters of potable water, which, he said, is unique to anywhere else.
Despite the larger, more expensive membranes, Liberman said Sorek’s cost of production is no different from that of Ashkelon’s or a plant in Hadera.
For many years, the Sea of Galilee was Israel’s major source of water, but drought conditions in the 1990s caused lake levels to become low and led to contamination, said Ehud Zion Waldoks, a spokesman for Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. But the desalination plant project initially lacked public support, which caused delay and put Israel in “dire water straits,” even to the point of people not washing their cars.
“In 1999, it rained a lot, and people asked, ‘Why do I need an extremely expensive desalination plant?’” he said.
Israel now uses a combination of freshwater from the Kinneret and desalinated seawater from the Mediterranean as its potable water sources for both drinking and irrigation. More than 80 percent of Israel’s treated wastewater is recycled and is used for irrigation of crops, which is higher than anywhere else in the world. Next is Spain, which recycles 20 percent of its wastewater.
At the helm of much of Israel’s water innovation has been BGU’s Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research. The university was established in 1969 by the Israeli government with the purpose of economically rejuvenating the Negev. It has produced a number of technological innovations such as the startup company ROTEC, which designs mineral scaling technology that prevents mineral salt deposits from collecting in membranes during the desalination process. The company has also brought its technology to Jordan, the United States and several countries in Europe.
Dr. Noam Perlmutter, one of ROTEC’s founders, explained that the desalination in Israel has ballooned to a roughly $30 billion- to $50 billion-per-year industry for revenue.
“The unique thing about our technology is that this is very important,” he said. “You can incorporate it into a new system, or you can also incorporate it in an existing system.”
Desalinated water has become a hot commodity around the world, used by large corporations such as IBM and Coca Cola. Perlmutter said ROTEC is developing a project with Coca Cola but is still in the early stages.
“In the United States, desalination is taking out water from the sea and [creating] potable water,” he said. “But desalination is much more than that. Today, you’re using desalination in every aspect of the industry.”
ROTEC’s latest pilot project is a flow reversal unit that is being tested at the Shafdan Wastewater Treatment Plant, which supplies water to the Dan region of Israel and includes Tel Aviv. It’s is the largest wastewater treatment plant in the country. Treating wastewater requires less pressure than seawater, Perlmutter added.
Shafdan can process 7.5 cubic meters of wastewater per hour (almost 2,000 gallons) and can recover up to 90 percent of the water by reversing the direction of the water’s flow and create a highly concentrated brine. The unit would be used only for nonpotable water purposes.
Perlmutter said that in Israel brine can be put back in the sea — there is no other current use for it — but other countries such as the United States and Australia forbid this practice.
“This is why in some cases the desalination of brackish water is not economically viable,” he said. “This is a big problem when you’re trying to get this much water [out of] the desalination process.”
But the presence of an advanced water infrastructure in Israel dates back further than 15 years.
The remains of the ancient Israelites’ irrigation system from the seventh century B.C.E. can be seen on the site of Tel Beersheva, just east of the modern-day city of Beersheva, and is open to the public.
BGU archeology professor Steve Rosen said the water system was set up in order to manage flash flooding at Wadi Beer Sheba. Rosen said all of the work in constructing the cistern would have been done with iron picks and that the engineering feat was “genius” for its time.
“They have no optical instruments. They have obviously no mechanical instruments. The whole thing is dug by hand with picks. The dirt is removed on the backs of donkeys and on the backs of people,” he said.
“You’d take three steady rods to line them up, and if they’re lined up in a straight line, you get plumb bobs to get a straight line going down. And you had to do all of that to make sure that they had a slope that would bring the water into the system.”
Rosen said most likely the majority of the work was done by slaves, due to the pyramid-like social structure of the ancient Israelite society.
“You would come out during the season and work on the king’s lands unless you were part of the aristocracy,” he said. “If you got to be in the upper class it was great, but how many people were in the upper class, 2 percent?”
Rosen himself was a part of the excavation team that uncovered the site in the 1970s and said that upon digging, the researchers discovered that much of the rock that was used in the construction collapsed in order to stabilize the ceiling, which is made of limestone block.
Rosen said the ancient civilizations typically did not drink the water due to the fact that it was full of waste but would typically elect to drink alcohol.
“We know from the Roman and Byzantine texts that you would not drink the water,” he said. “You would mix the water with wine, and they actually say it cleaned the water, which makes a little bit of sense because the wine had alcohol and the alcohol probably killed some of the bugs.”
Rosen added that some of Israel’s ancient cisterns still collect water, but it typically turns into green sludge that “you don’t want to put your toe in, let alone drink.”
A Nutritious Negev for Noshing
The concept of Jews having “made the desert bloom” may not be completely visible as you travel along Route 40 through the bare hills of Israel’s Negev desert, but venturing off the beaten path between Beersheva and Sde Boker may turn you on to one of the region’s most delicious hidden treasures.
The Kornmehl Goat Cheese Farm and Restaurant was started almost 20 years ago by Anat and Daniel Kornmehl, who had been studying agriculture at Hebrew University. Daniel had also studied cheese-making in France. After graduating and traveling around Australia and the United States, the couple came back to Israel with the intent of raising goats and starting their own cheese business.
“I was working in the Ministry of Agriculture in the extension service for farmers,” Anat said. “I was teaching sheep and goat farming, and then we decided that this is what we want to do. We want to practice agriculture and sell a product.”
They wanted to start their business in Jerusalem but were put off by the bureaucracy, so they decided to raise their own goats. The Kornmehls went to the land authorities and applied for a grazing license, only to be told they needed the actual goats first.
“At that time, Daniel was starting cheese-making in one of the places in Jerusalem, and they got an agreement that instead of getting money for the work that he did there, he [would] get 12 young goats,” Anat said.
The Kornmehls raised the goats for five years only to be repeatedly met with red tape.
“We got to a point where we said enough is enough. We either sell the goats or else I don’t know what we’re going to do,” she said.
They ended up settling on government-owned land just north of the Sde Boker kibbutz in 1997. Four kids and almost two decades later, the couple still does not have a permit, but they have been living on the site and going strong with their business.
“This is why we live in a compound, we can’t build a house yet after 18-and-a-half years,” she said.
In addition to the restaurant they offers tastings and opportunities to watch the goats being milked. March and April, Daniel said, is when farmers see their largest yield of goat’s milk, because mother goats usually get pregnant in July and start producing milk two months before they have kids. But the kids drink some of the mothers’ milk during infancy, which is around November and December.
The hard cheeses are in season first during the spring, and they then become progressively softer as the warm months progress.
Kornmehl’s menu is none too overwhelming but includes a series of effective outlets for getting cheese in the stomach including a calzone with goat cheese, tomatoes and red peppers and fried filo dough-wrapped goat cheese pieces that express “fresh from the farm” like no other style of goat cheese. You can also order a sampler plate that includes a selection of hard and soft cheese varieties.